George Orwell’s was published in 1949 in both London and New York. Thrifty printers will not throw out a batch of sheets simply because there was a mistake on the page. Those first sheets now form an “issue point” that collectors use to determine how early in the printing process the sheet was printed. This huge difference in value is largely due to the fact that more than 90% of dust jackets are destroyed, either deliberately or due to their ephemeral and fragile nature. Whichever hits the shops first is the “true” first edition while the other becomes the “first American edition” or “first English edition.” The value of a “true” first is typically always greater. When certain books are evaluated, the number of “mistakes” that occur in the printing process will elevate their value.
The article originally appeared on and is reprinted below with the author's permission.). As prices rose for papyrus and the reed used for making it was over-harvested towards local extinction in the two nomes of the Nile delta that produced it, Pergamon adapted by increasing use of vellum and parchment.Date: Thursday, 10 September 2015, (Registration required)Venue: Thomas Gray Room, Pembroke College Cambridge, Trumpington St, Cambridge, UK Most of what we know about the libraries which flourished in the Mediaeval Islamic world is based on literary accounts since the collections themselves almost completely disappeared.They have been largely understood as their Western equivalents although the place of the written word in the Islamic tradition should induce us to approach their history with more care.In their research they have come up with explanations that tell more about themselves than about the subject itself. Have Muslims at some point in time really refused to adopt printing as means of transmission of texts?Do these stories come from inside Muslim societies or are they told by relative outsiders? If printing was not done in the medieval and pre-modern periods, what other means were there for the mass production of Islamic books?